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GAT 2017 Syllabus : GITAM Admission Test

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Entrance Exam : GAT 2017 GITAM Admission Test

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Syllabus :

Syllabus can be downloaded from gitam.edu

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BOTANY
UNIT – 1
Diversity in living world:
1. What is living? Biodiversity, Need for classification. Three domains of life. Taxonomy & systematic concepts of species and taxonomical hierarchy. Binomial nomenclature tools for study of Taxonomy, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.

2. Five kingdom classifications, Silent features and classification of Monera,Protista and Fuji into major groups.
3. Salient features and classification of plants into major groups. Algae (spirogyra) Bryophytes (Funenia), Ptenidophytes (Pteris), Gymnosperms (Cycas).

UNIT – 2
External morphology:
Root, Stem, Leaf, Inflorescence, Flower, Fruit and Seed.

UNIT – 3
Internal Morphology:
1. Histology: Meristems, Simple tissues, Complex tissues and special tissues.
2. Tissue System: Epidermal, Ground and Vascular tissue systems.
3. Anatomy: Anatomy of Dicot and monocot root, dicot and monocot stem, dicoct and monocot leaf, secondary growth in dicot stem and dicot root.

UNIT – 4
Cell Biology:
1. Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life. Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell, plant and animal cell. Cell wall, cell membrane, cell organelles structure and function 1 chromosomes.
2. Biomolecules: Structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, enzymes.
3. Cell division: Cell cycle, Mitosis and meiosis.

UNIT – 5
Plant Taxonomy:
Introduction: Principles of plant classification, brief account of Bentham & Hooker’s system.
Families: Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solenacrae, Liliaceae poaceae.

UNIT – 6
Reproduction:
1. Reproduction organisms, Modes of reproduction. Asexual and sexual. Asexual regproduction – Binary fission, Sporulation, Budding, gemmule, Fragmentation, Vegetative propagation in plants.

2. Sexual reproduction flowering plants. Development of male and female gametophytes. Pollination types, agents. Out breeding devices, Double fertilization, post fertilization changes. Development of endosperm, embryo and seed. Apomixis, parthenocerpy, polyembryony.

UNIT – 7
Microbiology:
1. Bacteria and Viruses
2. Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing, industrial production, sewage treatment , energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.

UNIT – 8
Human welfare:
Improvement in food production. Plant breeding, tissue culture, single cell protein, Mushroom cultivation, Biofortification.

UNIT – 9
Biotechnology and its applications:
1. Principles and process of Biotechnology, Genetic engineering.
2. Application of Biotechnology in Agriculture and health. Human insulin and vaccine production, genetherapy, Genetically modified organisms, Bt. Crops, Trasgeric animals, Biosafety issues – Biopiracy and patents.

UNIT – 10
Plant Physiology:
1. Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; cell to cell transport – Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; plant-water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation. Transpiration – Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients – Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis; Diffusion of gases (Brief mention).

2. Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients and their role; Deficiency symptoms: Mineral Toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism; Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.

3. Photosynthesis : Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition, Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways;

4. Factors affecting photosynthesis.

5. Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.

6. Plant growth and development : Seed germination; Phases of plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation ; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators – auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.

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